Quo Vadis

Archival Music

In October 1951, M-G-M released an album of music from the soundtrack of Quo Vadis. It offered several of the important set pieces and dramatic underscore cues, albeit not sequenced in film order. Because the masters from the original London sessions have been lost, this vinyl record is the sole surviving element of most of the soundtrack music in “pure” form, without dialogue or effects. The fourth disc in this box set opens with its first official release on CD. The original (uncredited) liner notes are reproduced below.

Music from QUO VADIS

Recorded directly from the Sound Track of the M-G-M Technicolor Picture
MGM Records E103 (10″ LP)

Rome in the first century A.D. was in the full glory of its power. Ruled by Nero, whose debauchery and tyrannical cruelty have known no equal throughout history, the Imperial City was also witnessing the beginnings of a new religion of faith and hope and love that was slowly spreading through the Empire, replacing the pagan worship of the Romans. It was this decisive point in world history that novelist Sienkiewicz chose for his classic Quo Vadis—the story of the love of a victorious Roman warrior for a Christian slave girl.

The task of preparing a score for Quo Vadis was no less imposing than were the problems relating to casting, set designing and direction. Music played an important role in Nero’s life and in each of the pagan and Christian events in the story. But little is known and nothing extant of Roman music. The brilliant score recorded in this MGM RECORDS album was composed by Miklós Rózsa. Dr. Rózsa based some of the score on Greek, Jewish and other ancient sources. To add further authenticity to the music that accompanies Quo Vadis, Dr. Rózsa included in the orchestra many of the ancient instruments that were heard by the Romans during the reign of Nero.

1. Quo Vadis Prelude
The conflict that pervades the entire story of Quo Vadis is magnificently distilled in the musical prelude. In this short piece Roman military musicians are heard playing buccinas, ancient forerunners of the modern horn, while against the victorious might and energy of this music the strong spirit of the new Christianity is heard. The chorus sings of the appeal to Christ, and once again the fanfare of pagan Rome interrupts.
2. Assyrian Dance
While Nero, with Poppaea and Seneca, watch from the imperial dais, a voluptuous Assyrian girl dances for their diversion. The music, performed by woodwinds, is lively and uninhibited, suggestive of this oriental culture that Roman conquests introduced in Rome.
3. Lygia
Daughter of the Lygian king, the lovely Lygia has been brought up as a Christian by Plautius and his wife. The music for Lygia that recurs throughout the picture is the musical expression of her love for Marcus Vinicius and for her religion. The archaic phrases and modal harmonizations express Lygia’s purity, her nobility, and her abiding love.
4. Roman Bacchanal
The Roman banquet reached incredible proportions during Nero’s reign. Here the Emperor’s court orchestra of percussion, flutes and citharas reproduce in music the abandon and the frenzied debauchery of the Romans paying tribute to the god of wine. Dr. Rózsa has employed fragments of instrumental music from the second century A.D. in the characteristic 5/8 time of Greek music widely used in Rome.
5. Siciliana Antiqua
Again the banquet hall is the scene of a riotous celebration. The music that expresses this atmosphere is based on the oldest known Sicilian melody and is of marked Arabian flavor. Bagpipes are heard in the course of the rhythmic piece, for it has been well established that this instrument, a favorite of Nero’s, was among those used in Rome and was introduced to the British Isles by Roman legions.
6. Hymn of the Vestal Virgins
The music describes a pagan religious ceremony presided over by the Roman priests in the presence of the six Vestal Virgins, honoring Marcus Vinicius and the Roman armies on their triumphant return. The chorus sings a hymn of thanksgiving for the harvest as the Vestals, keepers of the sacred hearth fire of the capital of the Empire, look on.
7. Hail Nero, Triumphal March
The supreme moment in a Roman general’s life is the ceremony known as the Triumph. Marcus Vinicius rides proudly before his emperor as the procession of musicians, senators, sacrificial animals, prisoners and booty parade past the palace. The conqueror’s theme is played by Roman military instruments—salpinx, buccinas, aulos, drums and cymbal. Music expresses the glory and arrogance of Imperial Rome.
8. Jesu, Lord
At a secret meeting of Christians in a quarry, St. Paul administers baptism while a priest intones the solemn melody of Jesu, Lord. The congregation responds in chant that takes the form used in early Christian liturgy. The melody is of Yemenite Jewish origin and eventually became a part of the Kyrie of the Christian church.
9. Chariot Chase
The Roman chariot, symbol of proud conquerors, plays a vivid role in Quo Vadis and is here musically described as the orchestra plays a swift, rumbling musical scene of chariots racing towards Rome.
10. Invocation to Venus
The tragedy of Petronius, who discovers too late that his emperor has betrayed him and the Roman people, is further emphasized by the love of Eunice for her master. As Petronius dies, Eunice is unable to bear the thought of their separation and takes her own life to join him. The soft love song of Eunice is based on the music of Ode to Pindar discovered in Sicily in the 17th century and sung by Marina Berti.
11. Petronius’ Meditation and Death
Petronius realizes too late that he has failed to take action against Nero. Once an able man, he has allowed himself to become a cynic and selfish onlooker, while Nero punishes the Christians for his own crime. The artistic qualities of Petronius’ nature and his essential nobility, as well as his knowledge of his inevitable death, may be heard in the music for this scene.
12. Miracle—Finale
St. Peter, fleeing Rome, kneels and asks “Lord, whither goest Thou?” Christ replies, “I have come to Rome to be crucified again!” and Peter realizes that he has been ill advised to leave his fellow Christians, that he must return. His return to the arena lifts up the hearts of the martyrs, who praise Christ in His triumph over death. The question has been answered, and the voices of humanity sing a jubilant hymn to Christ the King.

After 14 years of writing music for the screen, a career that has won for him two coveted “Oscars,” Miklós Rózsa was given the enviable assignment of writing the musical score for Quo Vadis. Dr. Rózsa was born in Budapest and graduated from the music conservatory of the University of Leipzig. He was persuaded by director Jacques Feyder and Marlene Dietrich to do the score for Alexander Korda’s Knight Without Armor, and after that his career was clearly marked for him. Today Miklós Rózsa lives in Hollywood and teaches a weekly class in film music at the University of Southern California in addition to his frequent assignments for M-G-M. For the score of Quo Vadis Miklós Rózsa composed the music in this country and then went to England where he selected the best musicians from the finest English orchestras to record the music in this album. He chose the chorus of voices heard on these records and directed the entire musical score for the picture. The orchestra of 75 and a chorus of 100 were recorded in England, while the filming of Quo Vadis was done in Italy, and later the entire production was assembled in Hollywood. Lyrics for the soloists and chorus were written by Hugh Gray.


13. Burning of Troy (recorded 4/18/50)
The very first music from Quo Vadis to be recorded (on April 18, Rózsa’s birthday!), this version of Nero’s song performed by baritone Robert Brink with harp accompaniment includes Hugh Gray’s complete lyric and reveals a fully developed art song that was never completely heard in the film.
14. Nero’s Fire Song (4/18/50)
15. Nero’s Fire Song (4/18/50)
While Rome burns, Nero sings a Hugh Gray lyric in which the pyromaniac emperor lauds his own artistic creation. Rózsa developed the melody from a Gregorian chant (“Omnes sitientes”), which in turn undoubtedly had its origins in Greek or Hebrew sources. These opening and closing fragments of the song, again sung by baritone Robert Brink, represent a first step on the way to the final version used in the film.
16. Invocation to Venus (4/18/50)
This simple unaccompanied demo of Eunice’s song, adapted by Rózsa from the music to an Ode of Pindar discovered in Sicily in the 17th century and sung by soprano Mary Jane Smith, stands in marked contrast to the far more flamboyant songs of Nero.
17. Final Chorus (4/18/50)
Presumably to aid in timing the final scene for the cameras, this version of the concluding cue was recorded by a small chorus with organ and piano accompaniment. It is interesting to note subtle musical differences between this early demo and later versions, such as the rising note on the second syllable of “Do-MI-ne,” the altered notes at “Whither goest Thou?” and the different rhythm (quarter note and two eighths rather than the triplet used in the published version and the 1977 re-recording) at “Lord, we know not whither Thou goest.” At least a portion of this demo (the spoken lines “I am the Way, the Truth and the Life”) was tracked into the final soundtrack mix, replacing the British voices that can be heard on the LP (see track 12).
18. Fertility Hymn (4/18/50)
Unlike the thickly scored and poorly recorded soundtrack cue, the words of Hugh Gray are clearly understandable in this demo version performed by a small female chorus with harp, flute, oboe and percussion accompaniment.
19. Petronius’ Banquet (4/18/50)
The same small instrumental ensemble recorded this demo of Petronius’ theme arranged for background music at his banquet.
20. Assyrian Dance (5/3/50)
21. Assyrian Dance (slower version) (5/3/50)
These two versions of the dance performed by the Assyrian slave girl at Nero’s banquet use a chamber ensemble and were recorded for choreographer Aurelio Miloss.
22. Nero’s Fire Song (4/27/50)
A second prerecorded demo of Nero’s song (featuring baritone Paul Keast and pianist J. Rubenoff) is more complete and closer to what is actually sung by Peter Ustinov in the film. Interestingly, an even more fully developed version was included in a folio of piano selections from the score published at the time of the film’s release; it combines elements of the versions recorded on this disc and Ustinov’s film rendering but is not exactly the same as any of them.
23. The Burning of Troy (4/27/50)
This demo of Nero’s first song (featuring the same performers as track 22) is accompanied by piano rather than harp. There is one very slight difference in the melody near the end, but otherwise it is the same as the earlier version (track 13).
24. Dance of the Roman Priests
This short, frenetic dance, scored simply for piano and drums, is not mentioned in the surviving studio records and was never used in the film.

Pre-recorded Marches

25. Hail Nero (slow tempo)
26. Hail Nero (medium tempo)
27. Hail Nero (fast tempo)
28. Hail Galba (slow version)
To ensure that the visuals for the triumph scene would be perfectly synchronized with the onscreen movements (drummers and other instruments, plus the marchers themselves), Rózsa prerecorded the march (on May 3, 1950) in three different tempi. This allowed the director a choice prior to actually filming the scene in Rome; LeRoy ultimately chose the fastest version to provide his visual tempo. At the same session, Rózsa also recorded three versions of Galba’s march, of which only the slow version has survived. Fortunately, these pre-recordings sound much better than the London recordings, which were made outdoors (with considerably less clarity).

Pre-recorded Fanfares

29. Fanfares to Triumph (close)
30. Fanfares to Triumph (distant)
Because the reconstructed Roman brass instruments would be seen on screen, it was necessary to pre-record the fanfare that would open the procession celebrating Marcus’s triumph. Two recordings were made with different acoustical properties—one sounding close up and the other sounding as though the instruments were farther in the distance.
31. Fanfare A
32. Fanfare D
33. Fanfare E (long version)
34. Fanfare E (short version)
Five alphabetically designated fanfares were prerecorded with the marches. Only three have survived, but “Fanfare D” was recorded from different angles, making it the only cue from Quo Vadis that can be heard in stereo!

Suite of Film Fanfares

35. First, Second and Third Fanfares for Nero
36. Fanfare for Wrestlers (outtake)
37. Fourth Fanfare for Nero
38. First and Second Arena Fanfare
39. Fanfare for Burning
40. Fifth Fanfare for Nero
41. Fanfare for Lygia
42. Fanfare for Bull
Fanfares are sprinkled liberally throughout the film, and although they come with numerous titles, are of various lengths and in different keys, there are essentially only four of them. The one associated with Nero (tracks 35, 37 and 40) anticipates the “Hatfield” theme from Young Bess. The fanfare used during the arena spectacle in which the Christians are executed (tracks 38 and 42) is in the Phrygian mode and sounds a bit more ominous. A rising fifth characterizes the fanfare written to herald the burning of the crosses in the arena (track 39), and while the same fanfare was used to introduce the wrestlers at Nero’s party earlier in the picture, a different cue was composed for that moment but not used in the film (track 36). The fanfare that opens the picture is also played in the arena scene for the entrances of both Lygia and Ursus (track 41).

Additional Bonus Tracks

43. Burning of Rome
Rózsa recorded these “sweeteners” of the Scottish harp accompaniment to “The Burning of Rome” on August 15, 1951 in Culver City. There are two takes of the first section, then a single of the second.
44. Nero’s Suicide/Galba’s March/Finale
This alternate version of the concluding music uses a short insert (the last portion of “Nero’s Suicide,” recorded in Culver City on August 15, 1951) and eliminates the “mystic chords” just prior to the choral entry. — 

The composer wrote an article about his Quo Vadis score that was published in the journal Film Music Notes in late 1951 and is reprinted below.


by Miklós Rózsa
from Film Music Notes Vol. 11, No. 2 (November–December 1951)

A motion picture with historical background always presents interesting problems to the composer. There have been innumerable other historical pictures produced before Quo Vadis, and they were all alike in their negligent attitude toward the stylistic accuracy of their music. It is interesting to note what painstaking research is usually made to ascertain the year of publication of, let us say, “Yes, We Have No Bananas,” if it is used in a picture about the twenties, but no one seems to care much if the early Christians in the first century sing “Onward Christian Soldiers” by Sir Arthur Sullivan, composed a mere 1,800 years later! When a period picture is made, the historical background of the script is naturally based on historical facts and the dialogue tries to avoid any anachronistic terms or reference. The art director, interior director, costume designer, hair stylist and makeup man start their work only after thorough research, and the greatest care is taken that every building, every piece of furniture, every costume and every hairdo is absolutely authentic according to the period of the picture. During the actual photographing, a historical advisor, usually a scholar of reputation, supervises this procedure so that nothing can slip in and spoil the absolute authenticity.

Why is it then that when we come to music an exceptionally lofty attitude is felt and no one seems to care much about the genuineness of this most important factor of picture making? The countless dramatizations of antiquity in operas and oratorios naturally have not attempted to recreate the music of the period, as opera is stylized art and, therefore, the music is also a stylized adaptation of a certain historical or nationalistic style. No one expects to hear sixteenth century Minnesänger music in Die Meistersinger, antique Greek music in Elektra or ancient Hebrew music in Salome. The orientalism in Aida, Samson and Delilah or Queen of Sheba is only used as color and they are full-blooded, romantic operas mirroring the style of the period of their creation with no attempt whatsoever to represent the true style of the period of their action. But motion picture art is different. It is realistic and factual. It not only tries to capture the spirit of bygone eras but also tries to make believe that it projects before the eyes of the spectator the real thing. There are no painted backdrops, fake props, cardboard shields and wooden swords as in an opera, but everything is realistic to the fullest limit and if the public doesn’t believe that the Christians were actually eaten by the lions, the photoplay would have completely failed in its object.

When Quo Vadis was assigned to me I decided to be stylistically, absolutely correct. First, thorough research had to be made. Though my old studies of the music of antiquity came in handy now, I am most indebted to the librarian of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios, Mr. George Schneider, who with unfailing enthusiasm and unceasing effort produced every reference to the period that could be found in the libraries throughout the four corners of the world.

Our first duty was to prepare the blueprints for the antique instruments which had to be made. We reconstructed these from Roman statues (in the Vatican and Naples museums), antique vases and bas-reliefs on columns and tombstones, giving exact measurements for all details. The actual instruments were then produced by Italian instrument makers, so a great array of lyras and cytharas (the chief instruments of the Romans), double pipes (aulos), curved horns (buccina), straight trumpets (salpynx or tuba), tambourines, drums, sistrums, clappers and other percussion instruments were made with amazing likeness to the real ones.

Then the music which was to be performed on scene had to be prepared. To select music for a historical picture of the middle ages, for instance, would have been an easy task, as there is a wealth of material available. But this is not the case with Roman music from the year 64 A.D. In spite of the fact that a great amount of Roman literature, painting, architecture and sculpture has been preserved, there is absolutely no record of any music of the classical times of Roman history. There are a lot of references to music in literary works of the time so we know what an important part music played in the life of the Romans. Seneca complains that orchestras and choruses grew to gigantic proportions and often there were more singers and players in the theatre than spectators. There were numerous schools of music, and daughters of the rich bourgeoisie had to learn to play the lyre just as they have to learn the piano today. The slaves of the aristocrats entertained constantly and Seneca complains that “at table no one can talk for the music!” (An early forerunner of the menace on our radios.) All this proves that music was widely practiced and belonged to everyday life.

In Quo Vadis there were three distinguishable styles in which music had to be created. Firstly, the music of the Romans, such as songs of Nero and the slave girl Eunice, sacrificial hymn of the Vestals, marches and fanfares. Secondly, the hymns of the Christians; and thirdly, the music performed by slaves, which I call the Roman Empire music. As nothing remains of Roman music, this had to be recreated by deduction. We know that the culture of the Romans was entirely borrowed from the Greeks. Greek civilization and religion dominated Roman life and Nero himself preferred to speak Greek rather than Latin. As Greek musicians and instruments were imported and Greek musical theory adopted, the music of the Romans cannot be separated from its Greek models and ideas. It was, therefore, not incorrect to reconstruct this music from Greek examples. About the music of the Greeks we know considerably more. We know their thorough and involved musical systems, we can read their musical notations and we also have about 12 relics of actual music, preserved mostly on tombstones and old papyri. These were of the greatest value in this attempt at reconstruction. The Skolion of Seikilos, which is perhaps the oldest known musical relic with a definite melody in our modern sense, became the basic idea from which I developed Nero’s first song, “The Burning of Troy.” It is in Phrygian mode1 and dates from the first or second century.

The Burning of Troy

The second song of Nero, “The Burning of Rome,” uses a Gregorian anthem “Omnes sitientos venite ad aquas” as a point of departure. This is a reverse method of reconstruction, but if we accept the theory that much Roman music became Christian (as we shall see later) we can select from the early Christian music where the origin cannot be proven, and presume that the original source was Roman.2

The Burning of Rome

For Eunice’s song, I have used the first Ode of Pindar, which was allegedly found in a Sicilian monastery in 1650. Its authenticity is doubtful, but it is constructed entirely on Greek principles and it is a hauntingly beautiful melody.

Eunice's Song

Fragments from an anonymous composer from the second century, which probably were written for a cithara school, were interesting enough to serve as a point of departure for an instrumental piece, used as a bacchanale at Nero’s banquet. The 5/8 time is characteristic of Greek music.


The main problem that arose with all these original melodies was how to harmonize them. Whether the Greeks or Romans knew harmonies, or was their music entirely monadic, is still a hotly debated question. Polyphony in our modern sense was, of course, unknown, except that of parallel octaves, which hardly can be called polyphony. Only six intervals, the fourth, the fifth, the octaves, and their higher octaves were known and allowed as consonances.

As the music for Quo Vadis was intended for dramatic use and as entertainment for the lay public, one had to avoid the pitfall of producing only musicological oddities instead of music with a universal, emotional appeal. For the modern ear, instrumental music in unison has very little emotional or aesthetic appeal, therefore I had to find a way for an archaic sounding harmonization which gives warmth, color and emotional values to these melodies. A parallelism with open fifths and fourths came in most handy and also a modal harmonization suggested by the different (Lydian, Phyrigian, Dorian, Mixolydian, etc.) modes of the melodies in question. In the second category, for which authentic music had to be supplied, were the hymns of the early Christians. These also had to be reconstructed by deduction. St. Ambrose’s collection of liturgical music for the Catholic Church appeared about 400 years after our period and I wanted to go back to the very source from which the Ambrosian plainchant and later the Gregorian hymnology blossomed. As the early Christians were partly Jews and partly Greeks, their liturgical music naturally originates from these two sources. These two influences have been proven and are prevelant in the Gregorian hymns which are the fundament of the Roman Catholic Church music.

The first time we meet organized Christianity in the picture, we see St. Paul baptizing new believers and we hear them singing a hymn. A Babylonian Jewish liturgical melody (which found its way into the Gregorian hymnody, becoming a Kyrie) served as basis for this hymn. I used it in the manner of a cantus responsorius, where the priest intones a phrase and the congregation answers it. To achieve the authentic timbre and feeling of its rendition, we engaged a Jewish cantor to sing the part of the priest.


As the second major influence on the early Christian music was Greek, I selected a melody from a Greek hymn which had the beauty and fervor needed for the Christians to sing in the arena. The Hymn to Nemesis which was discovered by Vincenzo Gallilei in the seventeenth century but dates from the second century, seemed to me perfect for this purpose.

second hymn

The third hymn which is sung by the Christians burning on the crosses in the arena had to have a plaintive character, which I found in the Ambrosian Aeterna Conditor.

third hymn

It goes without saying that all these hymns are performed in the picture in unison (or octaves) unharmonized, as they were sung 2,000 years ago. The English words were written by Hugh Gray, who also served as historical advisor on the picture and displayed great feeling for the style and character of the time of antiquity.

The third category of the music was the music of the slaves, mostly Babylonians, Syrians, Egyptians, Persians and other conquered nations of oriental origin. There were fragments of the oldest melodies found in Sicily (a Roman province) with Arabian influence, and others found in Cairo, which I could utilize.

slave music

more slave music

The orchestration of the music performed on scene was another problem. None of the old instruments were available and, therefore, an archaic sound had to be created with our modern instruments. I used a small Scottish harp, the clarshch, and this delicate instrument gave a remarkably true likeness to the sound of the lyre and antique harp. For military music, cornets, mixed with trumpets and trombones, gave the roughness of the early brass instruments. Bass flute and English horn replaced the sound of the aulos. Our modern percussion instruments come close to the antique ones and therefore it was safe to use tambourines, jingles, drums of different shapes and sizes and cymbals. Bowed stringed instruments, however could not be used! These came into usage nearly a thousand years after our period so they would have been completely anachronistic. For music that was supposed to be performed by a large group of players, I took the liberty of using the string group of the orchestra playing pizzicato to reinforce the main body of the orchestra. Harps and guitars were also added to achieve the percussive quality. Melodic lines, however, were only given to the woodwind and brass instruments to perform.

“Another part of the forest” is the dramatic accompanying music which, for yet undetected reasons, Hollywood semantics call “the score.” The main function of this music is to heighten the drama, create the atmosphere and underline the emotional content of certain scenes. A stylistically, strictly correct music corresponding to our period would not have supplied these aims to the modern spectator and listener. Although I have constructed my themes on classical principles and was able to use a few fragments from historical relics, these had to be harmonized to make them emotionally appealing. A romantic, chromatic harmonization would have been out of a place and a simple modal harmonization seemed to me the closest to the character of this music. The modern major and minor triads were unknown factors to the Romans, but our modern ears are so used to these sounds that it would have been impossible to ignore them completely.

The main themes of the score of Quo Vadis are the following:

The opening prelude is a choral setting of the words “Quo Vadis Domine?” and its translation “Lord Wither Goes Thou?” The melodic line of this theme was modeled on the Gregorian “Libera me Domine” and Kyrie. Behind this urging question of Christianity we hear the interrupting fanfares of Roman buccinas.

Quo Vadis Domine?

A recurring theme of faith first appears in the garden where Lygia draws a fish, the symbol of the early Christians.

theme of faith

The love theme is first heard in Plautius’ gardens in the scene between Lygia and Marcus and is a musical reflection of Lygia’s gentle character and deep faith.

love theme

The Triumph introduces Marcus Vinicius’ contrasting theme of pagan heroism and self-confidence.

Marcus Vinicius' theme

An interesting chromatic motif from the second Delphic hymn was utilized as a motif of menace and tension in the scene where Lygia is taken as hostage.

menace and tension

A motif from “The Hymn to the Sun” appears majestically in the brass when Rome is in flames.

Rome in flames

Petronius is the noblest character in the picture and the following theme tries to describe him musically.

Petronius' theme

A motif of four chords introduces the Miracle scene, when the Lord talks to St. Peter and then the voices of angels intone the Quo Vadis theme.

Miracle chords

A theme of doom accompanies the suicide of Nero.

theme of doom

The dramatic music of Quo Vadis is much less polyphonic than my previous film scores, for the only reason that extended polyphony would have clashed anachronistically with monodic music performed on scene throughout this picture. At the end of the picture, the voices of humanity take up the Quo Vadis theme and after the answer of Christ they join in a jubilant reprise of the hymn “By the Light of the Dawn.”

For those who want to study the music of Quo Vadis more thoroughly, there is a record album from the sound tracks and a piano score, with the most important themes with pictures and historical notes, available.

1As notated here, and in Davison and Appel’s Historical Anthology of Music, and as used by Rózsa himself, this tune is not in the Phrygian mode (the pattern of whole and half steps created using only the white notes of the piano from “e” to “e”) but rather in the Mixolydian mode (the pattern of whole and half steps created using the white notes from “g” to “g”). It is not clear why Rózsa mislabeled it.

2Rózsa’s notation of this melody is problematic. He uses “common time” (4/4) yet the bar lines he inserted fit with 4/2—except for the first measure, which does not have enough beats in either time signature. The problem is addressed here by eliminating the time signature and measure lines altogether—a common practice in modern chant notation.